1. A source should be shown at all quotations.
  2. The following reference to literature can be used in the main text:
    • a surname of an author of a work with the year of edition in brackets, for example (Kowalski, 2011). Please refer to the manual file for more detailed examples.
  3. A general rule has to be accepted that in one book there is one way of literature citing – literature notes or a list of literature at the end of an article.


 A typescript should met the following conditions:

  • Word program,
  • A4 format, margins: left – 2 cm., right – 3,5 cm., upper and bottom margin – both approx. 2,5 cm.,
  • Times New Roman print, size: 12 points, space between lines: 1,5,
  • special typeface should be avoided, pages of a typescript should be numbered.


  1. Notes should be placed at the bottom of the pages.
  2. Continuous numbering should be kept within an article or within a chapter. If there are few notes in the whole work, numbering can be used within the whole work.
  3. Notes can be subject or bibliographical.
  4. If an author quotes a work which has already been in a note, the work’s title should be replaced with an abbreviation wyd. cyt. If in bibliographical notes there is citing at least two works of the same author, the initial words of a title should be given to avoid ambiguity.
  5. The given order applies in notes: first name’s initial, surname, etc.


Abstracts in English language with key words (3-5) and abstracts in Polish language with key words (3-5)  should be attached to the articles.

Tables and drawings

  1. Tables and drawings should be placed in the text as close to a place of citing as possible.
  2. A source or information “the study based on” should be placed next to every quoted table and drawing.
  3. Tables and drawings together with a title and a source should be inside a text column, i.e. in a column which size (after formatting) is 13 x 19 cm.
  4. A drawing should be prepared on a white background.
  5. Separate elements of a drawing can be made in the shades of greyness to make an included in it text legible.
  6. Times New Roman (9 points), single space, should be used for a text in a drawing.
  7. Drawings should be prepared in Corel, Word or Excel (with attached deta) in a form which is ready to print with a possibility to make corrections to them after editing.
  8. Drawings in Word should be grouped.
  9. In Excel charts with a large number of details a pattern filling should be used instead of colours.
Writing texts which include mathematical symbols and formulas one should always use equation processor (it also concerns notations which are included in a paragraph text, for example “variables x and x2 are then equal”).       

General rules of creating references in APA system:

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